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Diagnose Stages
Clinically inapparent tumor not palpable nor visible by imaging
Tumor incidental histologic finding in 5% or less of tissue resected
Tumor incidental histologic finding in more than 5% of tissue resected
Tumor identified by needle biopsy (e.g., because of elevated PSA)
Tumor confined within prostate*
Tumor involves 50% or less of one lobe
Tumor involves more than 50% of one lobe but not both lobes
Tumor involves both lobes
  Tumor extends through the prostate capsule**
Extracapsular extension (unilateral or bilateral)
Tumor invades seminal vesicle(s)
Tumor is fixed or invades adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles: bladder neck, external sphincter, rectum, levator muscles, and/or pelvic wall

Tumor that is found in one or both lobes by needle biopsy but is not palpable or reliably visible by imaging is classified as T1c.

Invasion into the prostatic apex or into (but not beyond) the prostatic capsule is classified as T2 not T3.]
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What is Prostate Cancer ?

The Prostate

The prostate is a gland found only in men. As shown in the picture below, the prostate is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut. The tube that carries urine (the urethra) runs through the prostate. The prostate contains cells that make some of the fluid (semen) that protects and nourishes the sperm.

The prostate begins to develop before birth and keeps on growing until a man reaches adulthood. Male hormones (called androgens) cause this growth. If male hormone levels are low, the prostate gland will not grow to full size. In older men, though, the part of the prostate around the urethra may keep on growing. This causes BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) which can result in problems passing urine. BPH is a problem that must be treated, but it is not cancer

Prostate cancer additional view

There are several cell types in the prostate, but nearly all prostate cancers start in the gland cells. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. The rest of the information here refers only to prostate adenocarcinoma.

Most of the time, prostate cancer grows slowly. Autopsy studies show that many older men (and even younger men) who died of other diseases also had prostate cancer that never caused a problem during their lives. These studies showed that as many as 7 to 9 out of 10 men had prostate cancer by age 80. But neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it.

Pre-cancerous changes of the prostate

Some doctors believe that prostate cancer begins with very small changes in the size and shape of the prostate gland cells. These changes are known as PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia). Almost half of all men have PIN by the time they reach 50. In PIN, there are changes in how the prostate gland cells look under the microscope, but the cells are basically still in place -- they don't look like they've gone into other parts of the prostate (like cancer cells would). These changes can be either low-grade (almost normal) or high-grade (abnormal).

If you have had a prostate biopsy that showed high-grade PIN, there is a greater chance that there are cancer cells in your prostate. For this reason, you will be watched carefully and may need another biopsy

Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

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